Main Article Content

Stefano Cuomo
Alice Roffi


The integration of digital technologies in the school context has now become a necessary and fundamental process in daily teaching practices. In particular, innovative technologies such as the so-called X-Reality are particularly effective to promote student learning, to encourage the acquisition of skills and interest in scientific disciplines. Based on these premises, the purpose of this literature search is to outline the state of the art of the use of X-Realities in STEM education in the context of secondary school, to understand the benefits, the critical aspects and the challenges to be faced in this field. To respond to the Research Questions, a scoping review was conducted on the Scopus and ERIC databases according to the PRISMA method. Following the selection process, 10 articles were included in the analysis. The results of this literature search therefore highlight how the use of AR and VR in STEM teaching offers many opportunities for learning concepts and acquiring scientific skills. At the same time, however, an accurate balancing of these positive effects with the related risks is also required, in order to allow a critical and conscious use of these innovative technologies.

Article Details

Articles - General topics
Author Biographies

Stefano Cuomo, Department of Education, Languages, Interculture, Literatures and Psychology - University of Florence

Stefano Cuomo (Eng. PhD) has been a research fellow at Department of Education, Languages, Interculture, Literatures and Psychology (FORLILPSI - University of Florence)  since 2012, and has been project manager for several European projects and involved in research activities. He presently has a research grant for the impact assessment in educational interventions and working on innovation in technologies for education. He is member of the Scientific Committee of the Laboratory of Educational Technologies at FORLILPSI (University of Florence).

Alice Roffi, Department of Education, Languages, Interculture, Literatures and Psychology - University of Florence

Alice Roffi is a PhD student at the University of Florence, FORLILPSI Department (University of Florence) . Her research interests are teachers digital competence, STEM teaching and learning with digital technologies.  She is a collaborator of the Laboratory of Educational Technologies led by Prof. Maria Ranieri at the FORLILPSI Dpt.


Altmeyer, K., Kapp, S., Thees, M., Malone, S., Kuhn, J., & Brünken, R. (2020). The use of augmented reality to foster conceptual knowledge acquisition in STEM laboratory courses—Theoretical background and empirical results. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(3), 611-628.

Arici, F., Yildirim, P., Caliklar, Ş., & Yilmaz, R. M. (2019). Research trends in the use of augmented reality in science education: Content and bibliometric mapping analysis. Computers & Education, 142, 103647.

Arnold, J. C., Kremer, K., & Mayer, J. (2014). Understanding Students' Experiments—What kind of support do they need in inquiry tasks?. International Journal of Science Education, 36(16), 2719-2749.

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational researcher, 18(1), 32-42.

Cai, S., Liu, C., Wang, T., Liu, E., & Liang, J. C. (2021). Effects of learning physics using Augmented Reality on students’ self‐efficacy and conceptions of learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(1), 235-251.

Carretero, S., Mägi, E., Bessios, A., Napierala, J., Gonzalez-Vazquez, I., Triquet, K., ... & Robledo-Bottcher, N. (2021). What Did We Learn from Schooling Practices during the COVID-19 Lockdown? Insights from Five EU Countries. JRC Science for Policy Report. European Commission.

Chavez, B., & Bayona, S. (2018, March). Virtual reality in the learning process. In World conference on information systems and technologies (pp. 1345-1356). Springer, Cham.

del Cerro Velázquez, F., & Morales Méndez, G. (2021). Application in augmented reality for learning mathematical functions: A study for the development of spatial intelligence in secondary education students. Mathematics, 9(4), 369.

Coiro, J., Castek, J., & Quinn, D. J. (2016). Personal inquiry and online research: Connecting learners in ways that matter. The Reading Teacher, 69(5), 483-492.

Cuomo, S., Luzzi, D., Roffi, A. & Ranieri, M. (2022). Immersive Environments in Higher Education: the Digital Well-Being Perspective. In ATEE Spring Conference Proceedings. Accepted.

Fidan, M., & Tuncel, M. (2019). Integrating augmented reality into problem based learning: The effects on learning achievement and attitude in physics education. Computers & Education, 142, 103635.

Georgiou, Y., Tsivitanidou, O., & Ioannou, A. (2021). Learning experience design with immersive virtual reality in physics education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(6), 3051-3080.

Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health information & libraries journal, 26(2), 91-108.

Ibáñez, M. B., & Delgado-Kloos, C. (2018). Augmented reality for STEM learning: A systematic review. Computers & Education, 123, 109-123.

Kyza, E. A., Constantinou, C. P., & Spanoudis, G. (2011). Sixth graders’ co-construction of explanations of a disturbance in an ecosystem: Exploring relationships between grouping, reflective scaffolding, and evidence-based explanations. International Journal of Science Education, 33(18), 2489-2525.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ling, Y., Zhu, P., & Yu, J. (2021). Which types of learners are suitable for augmented reality? A fuzzy set analysis of learning outcomes configurations from the perspective of individual differences. Educational Technology Research and Development, 69(6), 2985-3008.

Liu, Q., Yu, S., Chen, W., Wang, Q., & Xu, S. (2021). The effects of an augmented reality based magnetic experimental tool on students' knowledge improvement and cognitive load. Journal of computer assisted learning, 37(3), 645-656.

Luzzi, D., Cuomo, S., Roffi, A. & Ranieri, M. (2022). The design of a 360° video for higher education from a multidimensional perspective of digital well-being. In: 16th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, 7th-8th March 2022, IATED Academy, pp. 4805-4814.

Makransky, G., Petersen, G. B., & Klingenberg, S. (2020). Can an immersive virtual reality simulation increase students’ interest and career aspirations in science?. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(6), 2079-2097.

Melo, C., Madariaga, L., Nussbaum, M., Heller, R., Bennett, S., Tsai, C. C. & van Braak, J. (2020). Editorial: Educational technology and addictions. Computers & Education, 145 (2020) 103730.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G. & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6(7): e1000097.

Niittymäki, N., Christopoulos, A., & Laakso, M. J. (2021) Mobile Virtual Reality in Secondary Education: An Exploratory Study in the Course of Biology. In 2021 44th International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO) (pp. 595-600). IEEE.

Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Siiman, L. A., De Jong, T., Van Riesen, S. A., Kamp, E. T., ... & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational research review, 14, 47-61.

Pellas, N., Kazanidis, I., & Palaigeorgiou, G. (2020). A systematic literature review of mixed reality environments in K-12 education. Education and Information Technologies, 25(4), 2481-2520.

Petrov, P. D., & Atanasova, T. V. (2020). The Effect of augmented reality on students’ learning performance in stem education. Information, 11(4), 209.

Ranieri, M., Bruni, I. & Luzzi, D. (2020). Introducing 360-degree video in higher education: An overview of the literature, In EDEN Conference Proceedings, No. 1, pp. 345-353.

Ranieri, M. (2022). Competenze digitali per insegnare. Modelli e proposte operative. Carrocci Editore. ISBN: 9788874668991

Ranieri, M., Luzzi, D., Cuomo, S., & Bruni, I. (2022). If and how do 360-degree videos fit into education settings? Results from a scoping review of empirical research. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. DOI: 10.1111/jcal.12683

Roffi, A., Cuomo, S., Ranieri, M. (2021). Using Augmented and Virtual Reality for teaching scientific disciplines. IUL RESEARCH, vol. 2, pp. 185-201, ISSN:2723-9586.

Shu, Y., & Huang, T. C. (2021). Identifying the potential roles of virtual reality and STEM in Maker education. The Journal of Educational Research, 114(2), 108-118.

Tomara, M., & Gouscos, D. (2019). A case study: visualizing coulomb forces with the aid of augmented reality. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7), 1626-1642.

Weng, C., Otanga, S., Christianto, S. M., & Chu, R. J. C. (2020). Enhancing students’ biology learning by using augmented reality as a learning supplement. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(4), 747-770.