Italian Journal of Educational Technology <h2>Since 1993, a four-monthly journal on educational technology</h2> <p>The<strong> Italian Journal of Educational Technology (IJET) </strong>(formerly <strong>TD Tecnologie Didattiche</strong>) is a refereed, open-access journal that publishes theoretical perspectives, review articles, methodological developments, empirical research and best practice in the field of education and technology. The journal targets scholars and practitioners and welcomes contributions in English on any aspect of technology-enhanced learning in formal, non-formal and informal learning contexts, from early years through to technical, vocational and higher education, professional development and corporate training, in any subject domain.</p> <p>All contents of the Italian Journal of Educational Technology (IJET) are licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>. Readers have free online access to the contents of all issues of the journal.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License" src="" alt=""></a></p> <p>Italian Journal of Educational Technology has been recognised as Classe A journal in the assessment carried out by&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ANVUR</a>, the agency designated by Italy's Ministry of Education and Research for evaluating research institutions and scientific output.&nbsp; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Keep reading in About</a>.</p> <h3>TOPICS</h3> <p>Topics covered concerns any aspect of educational technology, including:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Theoretical aspects of educational technology and technology-enhanced learning</li> <li class="show">Innovative learning environments</li> <li class="show">Open and online education</li> <li class="show">Collaborative learning</li> <li class="show">Design of learning environments</li> <li class="show">Evaluation and assessment</li> <li class="show">Mobile technologies and social media</li> <li class="show">Game-based learning</li> <li class="show">Formal, non-formal and informal learning</li> <li class="show">Digital literacy</li> <li class="show">Technology for inclusive learning</li> <li class="show">Digital contents and educational resources</li> <li class="show">Research methods in educational technology</li> <li class="show">Policies for innovation in educational systems</li> </ul> <h3>PEER REVIEW POLICY</h3> <p>Manuscripts undergo a double-blind peer-review process involving at least two reviewers and the editor of each issue.</p> Firenze University Press en-US Italian Journal of Educational Technology 2532-4632 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><ol><li><span>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under </span>a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_blank">The Effect of Open Access</a>)</li></ol> Editorial. Educational neuroscience: An opened challenge <p class="IJETNNormal">In the last few years, neuroscience research has started having an impact on education, by expanding the theories of learning with interesting implications also from an operational and practical point of view. Already in 2017, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) suggested technology and neuroscience are two key areas of development for education, as the consideration of the learners’ brain-body functioning can support the development of better teaching methodologies and technology-enhanced learning practices; however, the integration of neuroscientific research findings into educational theory and practice, avoiding direct and simplistic applications, is still an open issue.</p> <p class="IJETNNormal">In recent decades, a debate in the research community on this subject has been fostered by the contribution of John Bruer, where he stated that “<span class="IJETPItalic">neuroscience has little to offer teachers in terms of information about classroom practice</span>” (1997, p. 4) and that cognitive psychology is the only viable bridge to link knowledge about brain functioning and educational theory. His point of view represents a critical response to the rapid proliferation during that time of misconceptions created by misreading or simplifying scientifically established data to justify the use of brain research in educational practice. Subsequently, several scientists have focused on clarifying how knowledge of brain structure and functioning can have a positive impact on the school system and educational field, arguing that Educational Neuroscience is not only a way to improve teaching but should aim to explain how students learn and how learning processes change our brain (Howard-Jones et al., 2016), and that different bridges need to be built to characterize this field of research “<span class="IJETPItalic">with multiple methodologies and levels of analysis in multiple contexts</span>” (Ansari &amp; Coch, 2006, p. 146). However, within this debate, it is also argued that the gap between neuroscience and education cannot be solved by supporting the interaction between neuroscientists and teachers or by building a “<span class="IJETPItalic">bridge</span>” between different fields, but rather by the development of <span class="IJETPItalic">evidence-based education</span> (Della Sala &amp; Anderson, 2012); moreover, evidence that the brain changes in response to teaching may have no relevance to teachers, since the only relevant question is whether students learn and how learning is reflected in their behaviors (Bowers, 2016).</p> <p class="IJETNNormal">To date, these different theoretical viewpoints promote ongoing critical discussion among educational researchers and stakeholders.</p> <p class="IJETNNormal">An interesting recent review has attempted to better contextualize the contemporary aims of Educational Neuroscience using a thematic analysis of all the definitions and mission statements reported in the academic literature over the past three decades, identifying three key pillars: applying neuroscience knowledge to the classroom and to educational and instructional innovation; providing a strong and necessary interdisciplinary collaboration; and translating languages and methods historically belonging to different contexts and ensuring mutual interaction (<a name="_Hlk121821647"></a>Feiler &amp; Stabio, 2018). Based on this evidence, the authors claim that Educational Neuroscience should be considered an independent field, covering the social and applied sciences and aiming to improve educational practices in real-world contexts: the intersection of knowledge from different research areas (such as cognitive and social neuroscience, psychology, etc.) and the investigation of how this knowledge can be applied to educational contexts may offer interesting new perspectives. The second feature that seems to strongly characterize Educational Neuroscience is the close collaboration between different professionals; however, despite international examples of interdisciplinary teams, there still persist barriers to the identifying of shared goals, probably related to the challenges of creating a common language among disciplinary fields and bringing demands arising from real learning settings into research laboratories (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2019).</p> <p class="IJETNNormal">In light of this brief introduction, exploring how neuroscience findings can potentially be reflected in the design and implementation of effective pedagogical methodologies and innovative educational technologies remains a significant area for future investigation and reflection. In addition, the study of how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be enriched by evidence from science on the functioning of the brain and the human mind seems to be a significant research target. The present issue of Italian Journal of Educational Technology is evidence of current research efforts to explore the role of education and technology in supporting the “learning brain” and promoting innovative approaches to teaching and learning based on neuroscientific knowledge. The variety of approaches, methods and goals of educational neuroscience is evidenced by existing research projects and academic studies and is clearly represented in the following contributions. [...]</p> Chiara Fante Rosalba Morese Dario La Guardia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 30 3 3 5 10.17471/2499-4324/1306 NEUROSCIENCE IN EDUCATION: NOT A RECIPE BOOK <p>The neuro prefix is very fashionable, and neuroeducation is just one of the myriad offsprings. Neuroscience offers an invaluable contribution to assess, diagnose, and perhaps manage pathologies, including disorders of learning in children and adolescents. However, neuroscience as such has so far proved to have little to offer to education in school. If misunderstood, neuroscience can open the gate to a number of questionable practices in the classroom. Even considering the discipline which has most to offer, cognitive psychology, the transition from lab results to school activities is challenging and should accord with didactic aims and educational contexts. Teachers and educators should resist the allure of applying neuroscientific findings and theories as if they were recipes to be carried out. In this viewpoint we will argue against the direct use of neuroscientific research findings to inform classroom education.</p> Roberto Cubelli Sergio Della Sala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-29 2022-11-29 30 3 6 15 10.17471/2499-4324/1274 TEACHING TO READ: AN INTERESTING INTERFACE BETWEEN NEUROSCIENCE AND EDUCATION <p>The work presents the results of a large experimentation carried out in Italy, which aimed to verify the advantages and sustainability of a rigorous phono-syllabic programme (Alfabeto140) compared to programmes that include marked traits of global and ideo-visual methods. The evaluation made use of tools in line with the different evolutionary phases of the reading and writing process, assessing at the pre-test the skills related to the prerequisites of reading and writing, and at the post-test those related to the acquisition of the alphabetical phase. The experimentation shows how the experimental group achieves significantly better results over 7 months of activity than the control group, with a more consistent systematic reduction of the subjects initially at risk for reading and writing difficulties, and an excellent appreciation by the teachers who have tried the programme.</p> Antonio Calvani Paola Damiani Sergio Miranda Lorena Montesano Luciana Ventriglia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 30 3 16 32 10.17471/2499-4324/1265 ON THE UTILITY OF THE P3 AS A NEUROMARKER OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW <p>Reliable and valid assessment of students’ academic potential has huge consequences for their future success. To date, this has almost exclusively been achieved through the administration of pencil-and-paper aptitude assessments or self-report instruments. Performance on these assessments can be influenced by factors such as test anxiety, providing an inaccurate prediction of a student’s potential. These methods also ignore that academic performance is the product of brain activity. Limits associated with these past practices can be addressed through the identification of robust neuromarkers of academic performance. The P3 component of the event-related potential, thought to index cognitive processes underlying learning, is one such promising candidate. Previous studies have identified significant associations between temporal characteristics of the P3 and a number of academic performance measures, highlighting its utility as a neuromarker. This brief review summarizes previous work on the P3 component and academic performance, and outlines considerations for future research.</p> Adam John Privitera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-24 2022-10-24 30 3 33 44 10.17471/2499-4324/1264 NEUROSCIENCE IN THE CLASSROOM: MAKING TEACHERS’ LEARNING VISIBLE <p>Understanding how the brain works can help improve teaching effectiveness. To this purpose, a research-training was set up with teachers from three schools serving students aged 3-13. Quantitative and qualitative tools were used in order to understand how neurosciences can improve educational practices. This paper presents the results of the use of the Thinking Routine “Connect-Extend-Challenge” with teachers. It describes how they could reflect on their teaching practice to implement new methodologies in the classroom. The themes that most scaffolded teachers’ reflection is the functioning of cognitive processes and the importance of integrating emotions into teaching. Less attention is given to some concepts (i.e. feedback, curiosity, etc.) that are perhaps still taken for granted.</p> Sara Mori Silvia Panzavolta Alessia Rosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 30 3 45 63 10.17471/2499-4324/1266 SERIOUS GAMES FOR PROMOTING ACTIVE AND HEALTHY AGEING AND MONITORING FRAILTY IN THE ELDERLY <p>In our ageing society, game-based learning can play an important role. Ageing turns us into "lifelong learners" and serious games could provide valuable support to improve health, enhance and rehabilitate cognition, promote new skills and promote social inclusion. To date, serious games are promising and accessible tools suitable for promoting healthy and active ageing. The role of developers and trainers is crucial in achieving the set goals.&nbsp; When the target population is elderly there are functional, pedagogical, psychological, and ergonomic aspects to be considered when implementing new games and new technologies.&nbsp; Despite the many difficulties, serious games can and "should" complement existing neuropsychological interventions, offering a more engaging, standardized, and personalized context for training or rehabilitation. The objective of this contribution is to provide a framework for understanding and developing ICT-IoT products for the elderly population so that process pipelines and effectiveness measures can be optimized.</p> Sara Palermo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-19 2022-12-19 30 3 10.17471/2499-4324/1273 A THEORETICAL PROPOSAL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATORS’ PREPAREDNESS IN RELATION TO EDUCATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE <p>Educators’ knowledge transformation in line with educational neuroscience principles is a crucial step to the potential improvement of educational practice. We argue that similar to other knowledge domains this transformation seems to go through five developmental stages (Recognize, Accept, Adapt, Explore and Advance), along with five - distinct but complementary - axes: curriculum implementation, student assessment, learning, teaching and access to non-invasive portable and wearable technologies for neurophysiological measurements. With regard to the aforementioned axes, research in educational neuroscience has offered important findings. In this vein, the article proposes that the development of in-service and pre-service educator knowledge on educational neuroscience could be based on the five developmental stages and according to the five axes. The aim is to prompt educators to develop the knowledge and skills they need to integrate the principles and findings of educational neuroscience in the planning of their teaching, in the teaching and assessment approaches they use, and in the collaborative endeavours with researchers in educational research activities.</p> Spyridon Doukakis Maria Niari Chrystalla Mouza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 30 3 78 90 10.17471/2499-4324/1268